MMAN dynamically adjust the sizes of the SGA components like buffer cache, large pool, shared pool and java pool and serves as SGA memory broker.
It is a new process added to Oracle 10g as part of automatic shared memory management.
It used for internal database tasks such as Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM)
Automatic Shared Memory Management, or ASMM is what you do when setting SGA_TARGET and not setting MEMORY_TARGET. Basically, you define the size of the SGA you want to allocate at startup and that will be available for the instance, most of it being buffer cache and shared pool.
SGA_TARGET and SGA_MAX_SIZE because on the most common platforms, all is allocated at instance startup. Then, in addition to this shared area used by all instance processes, each processes can allocate private memory, and you control this with PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.
The total size of SGA and PGA for all instances in a system must reside in physical memory for the simple reason that they are mostly used to avoid I/O (a large buffer cache avoids physical reads and optimizes physical writes, a large PGA avoids reads and writes to temp files).
MMAN background process manages the dynamic resizing of SGA memory components depending on load for database.
Responsible for managing instance memory based on the workloads.
Uses the the metrics collected to determine the ideal distribution of memory within oracle. It constantly monitors the database and adjusts the memory allocations according to workloads.
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