There are different ways of upgrading to the latest release of Oracle database and Oracle provides multiple methods to upgrade. Few are listed below:
- Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
- Manual Upgrade
- Transportable Tablespaces
- Datapump export/import
- Oracle Streams
- Oracle GoldenGate
Here I am going to choose DBUA to upgrade my database,
Backup 11g database using RMAN
rman target /
backup database plus archivelog;
backup current controlfile;
Ensure backup is complete before upgrade.
SQL> SELECT * FROM v$backup WHERE status != 'NOT ACTIVE'; no rows selected
Empty Recycle bin.
SQL> PURGE DBA_RECYCLEBIN ; DBA Recyclebin purged.
Run Gather statistics to finish upgrade soon.
SQL> EXEC DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS; PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
Stop the running 11g listener
lsnrctl stop LISTENER_NAME
Run preupgrade tool and fixups
Oracle strongly recommends that you run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool before starting the upgrade with DBUA. Although DBUA runs the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool as part of the pre-requisite checks, it is good practice to run the tool ahead of time in order to analyze the database and take actions that can decrease downtime for upgrading.
Connect to 184.108.40.206 database environment as SYS,
Pre-upgrade checks :
Run the preupgrade tool .
[oracle@ram ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=orcldb [oracle@ram ~]$ export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 [oracle@ram ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL*Plus: Release 220.127.116.11.0 Production on Tue Feb 12 19:49:03 2019 Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved. Connected to an idle instance. SQL> startup ORACLE instance started. Total System Global Area 4893769728 bytes Fixed Size 2261568 bytes Variable Size 2717912512 bytes Database Buffers 2164260864 bytes Redo Buffers 9334784 bytes Database mounted. Database opened. SQL> exit Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 18.104.22.168.0 - 64bit Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options [oracle@ram ~]$ java -jar /u01/app/oracle/product/18.3/rdbms/admin/preupgrade.jar TEXT TERMINAL Report generated by Oracle Database Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Version 22.214.171.124.0 on 2019-02-12T19:49:51 Upgrade-To version: 126.96.36.199.0 ======================================= Status of the database prior to upgrade ======================================= Database Name: ORCLDB Container Name: Not Applicable in Pre-12.1 database Container ID: Not Applicable in Pre-12.1 database Version: 188.8.131.52.0 Compatible: 184.108.40.206.0 Blocksize: 8192 Platform: Linux x86 64-bit Timezone File: 14 Database log mode: ARCHIVELOG Readonly: FALSE Edition: EE Oracle Component Upgrade Action Current Status ---------------- -------------- -------------- Oracle Server [to be upgraded] VALID JServer JAVA Virtual Machine [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle XDK for Java [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Workspace Manager [to be upgraded] VALID OLAP Analytic Workspace [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Enterprise Manager Repository [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Text [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle XML Database [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Java Packages [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Multimedia [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle Spatial [to be upgraded] VALID Expression Filter [to be upgraded] VALID Rule Manager [to be upgraded] VALID Oracle OLAP API [to be upgraded] VALID ============== BEFORE UPGRADE ============== REQUIRED ACTIONS ================ 1. Set DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE initialization parameter to at least 5082 MB. Check alert log during the upgrade to ensure there is remaining free space available in the recovery area. DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE is set at 4182 MB. There is currently 4050 MB of free space remaining, which may not be adequate for the upgrade. Currently: Fast recovery area : /u01/app/oracle Limit : 4182 MB Used : 132 MB Available : 4050 MB The database has archivelog mode enabled, and the upgrade process will need free space to generate archived logs to the recovery area specified by initialization parameter DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. The logs generated must not overflow the limit set by DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE, as that can cause the upgrade to not proceed. RECOMMENDED ACTIONS =================== 2. Remove the EM repository. - Copy the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/emremove.sql script from the target 220.127.116.11.0 ORACLE_HOME into the source 18.104.22.168.0 ORACLE_HOME. Step 1: If database control is configured, stop EM Database Control, using the following command $> emctl stop dbconsole Step 2: Connect to the database using the SYS account AS SYSDBA SET ECHO ON; SET SERVEROUTPUT ON; @emremove.sql Without the set echo and serveroutput commands, you will not be able to follow the progress of the script. The database has an Enterprise Manager Database Control repository. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the local Enterprise Manager Database Control does not exist anymore. The repository will be removed from your database during the upgrade. This step can be manually performed before the upgrade to reduce downtime. 3. Remove OLAP Catalog by running the 22.214.171.124.0 SQL script $ORACLE_HOME/olap/admin/catnoamd.sql script. The OLAP Catalog component, AMD, exists in the database. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the OLAP Catalog (OLAP AMD) is desupported and will be automatically marked as OPTION OFF during the database upgrade if present. Oracle recommends removing OLAP Catalog (OLAP AMD) before database upgrade. This step can be manually performed before the upgrade to reduce downtime. 4. Upgrade Oracle Application Express (APEX) manually before the database upgrade. The database contains APEX version 3.2.1.00.12. Upgrade APEX to at least version 5.1.3.00.05. Starting with Oracle Database Release 18, APEX is not upgraded automatically as part of the database upgrade. Refer to My Oracle Support Note 1088970.1 for information about APEX installation and upgrades. 5. Directly grant ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER privilege to the owner of the trigger or drop and re-create the trigger with a user that was granted directly with such. You can list those triggers using "SELECT OWNER, TRIGGER_NAME FROM DBA_TRIGGERS WHERE BASE_OBJECT_TYPE=''DATABASE'' AND OWNER NOT IN (SELECT GRANTEE FROM DBA_SYS_PRIVS WHERE PRIVILEGE=''ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER'')" There is one or more database triggers whose owner does not have the right privilege on the database. The creation of database triggers must be done by users granted with ADMINISTER DATABASE TRIGGER privilege. Privilege must have been granted directly. 6. (AUTOFIXUP) Gather statistics on fixed objects prior the upgrade. None of the fixed object tables have had stats collected. Gathering statistics on fixed objects, if none have been gathered yet, is recommended prior to upgrading. For information on managing optimizer statistics, refer to the 126.96.36.199 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide. INFORMATION ONLY ================ 7. To help you keep track of your tablespace allocations, the following AUTOEXTEND tablespaces are expected to successfully EXTEND during the upgrade process. Min Size Tablespace Size For Upgrade ---------- ---------- ----------- SYSAUX 510 MB 723 MB SYSTEM 740 MB 1180 MB TEMP 20 MB 150 MB UNDOTBS1 30 MB 446 MB Minimum tablespace sizes for upgrade are estimates. ORACLE GENERATED FIXUP SCRIPT ============================= All of the issues in database ORCLDB which are identified above as BEFORE UPGRADE "(AUTOFIXUP)" can be resolved by executing the following SQL>@/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/preupgrade_fixups.sql ============= AFTER UPGRADE ============= REQUIRED ACTIONS ================ None RECOMMENDED ACTIONS =================== 8. Upgrade the database time zone file using the DBMS_DST package. The database is using time zone file version 14 and the target 188.8.131.52.0 release ships with time zone file version 31. Oracle recommends upgrading to the desired (latest) version of the time zone file. For more information, refer to "Upgrading the Time Zone File and Timestamp with Time Zone Data" in the 184.108.40.206.0 Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide. 9. (AUTOFIXUP) Gather dictionary statistics after the upgrade using the command: EXECUTE DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS; Oracle recommends gathering dictionary statistics after upgrade. Dictionary statistics provide essential information to the Oracle optimizer to help it find efficient SQL execution plans. After a database upgrade, statistics need to be re-gathered as there can now be tables that have significantly changed during the upgrade or new tables that do not have statistics gathered yet. 10. Gather statistics on fixed objects after the upgrade and when there is a representative workload on the system using the command: EXECUTE DBMS_STATS.GATHER_FIXED_OBJECTS_STATS; This recommendation is given for all preupgrade runs. Fixed object statistics provide essential information to the Oracle optimizer to help it find efficient SQL execution plans. Those statistics are specific to the Oracle Database release that generates them, and can be stale upon database upgrade. For information on managing optimizer statistics, refer to the 220.127.116.11 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide. INFORMATION ONLY ================ 11. Check the Oracle documentation for the identified components for their specific upgrade procedure. The database upgrade script will not upgrade the following Oracle components: OLAP Catalog,OWB The Oracle database upgrade script upgrades most, but not all Oracle Database components that may be installed. Some components that are not upgraded may have their own upgrade scripts, or they may be deprecated or obsolete. ORACLE GENERATED FIXUP SCRIPT ============================= All of the issues in database ORCLDB which are identified above as AFTER UPGRADE "(AUTOFIXUP)" can be resolved by executing the following SQL>@/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/postupgrade_fixups.sql ================== PREUPGRADE SUMMARY ================== /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/preupgrade.log /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/preupgrade_fixups.sql /u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/postupgrade_fixups.sql Execute fixup scripts as indicated below: Before upgrade log into the database and execute the preupgrade fixups @/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/preupgrade_fixups.sql After the upgrade: Log into the database and execute the postupgrade fixups @/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/postupgrade_fixups.sql Preupgrade complete: 2019-02-12T19:49:51
Run the preupgrade_fixup.sql
SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/preupgrade_fixups.sql Executing Oracle PRE-Upgrade Fixup Script Auto-Generated by: Oracle Preupgrade Script Version: 18.104.22.168.0 Build: 1 Generated on: 2019-02-12 19:49:43 For Source Database: ORCLDB Source Database Version: 22.214.171.124.0 For Upgrade to Version: 126.96.36.199.0 Preup Preupgrade Action Issue Is Number Preupgrade Check Name Remedied Further DBA Action ------ --------------------- ---------- ----------------------- 1. trgowner_no_admndbtrg NO Informational only. Further action is optional. 2. pre_fixed_objects YES None. 3. tablespaces_info NO Informational only. Further action is optional. The fixup scripts have been run and resolved what they can. However, there are still issues originally identified by the preupgrade that have not been remedied and are still present in the database. Depending on the severity of the specific issue, and the nature of the issue itself, that could mean that your database is not ready for upgrade. To resolve the outstanding issues, start by reviewing the preupgrade_fixups.sql and searching it for the name of the failed CHECK NAME or Preupgrade Action Number listed above. There you will find the original corresponding diagnostic message from the preupgrade which explains in more detail what still needs to be done. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
At this stage, we are still connected to 11g database which is up and running.
Now run the dbua utility from 18c oracle_home location.
[oracle@ram ~]$ export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH [oracle@ram ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=orcldb [oracle@ram ~]$ export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/18.0/db_1 [oracle@ram ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/18.3/db_1/bin [oracle@ram bin]$ ./dbua
DBUA performs some of the checks before actually starting the database upgrade. Some of the checks can be done manually to reduce downtime for the upgrade.
DBUA provides below options:
– Upgrade timezone.
– Gather dictionary statistics before upgrade.
– Make user tablespaces read only.
– Take RMAN backup before upgrade.
– Create Restore Point for Database Flashback
– Restore database backup to rollback upgrade
– Option to execute Custom scripts before and after upgrade
– show the location of DBUA logs and Alert log files.
– Option to upgrade existing listener to 18.x home or create a new listener in 18.x target home.
select the Upgrade Oracle Database option, then click the “Next” button.
If the prerequisite checks highlight any issues, take the appropriate action to fix the issues. If all the prerequisite checks are passed, click the “Next” button.
Amend the upgrade options if necessary, then click the “Next” button.
Select the recovery options for use in the event of an upgrade failure, then click the “Next” button.
If the database is using the 11g listener, accept the defaults, so the listener will be upgraded.
Select the desired management options, then click the “Next” button.
Run “postupgrade_fixups.sql” to check post upgrade status.
SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/orcldb/preupgrade/postupgrade_fixups.sql Session altered. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Package created. No errors. Package body created. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. No errors. Package created. No errors. Package body created. No errors. Executing Oracle POST-Upgrade Fixup Script Auto-Generated by: Oracle Preupgrade Script Version: 188.8.131.52.0 Build: 1 Generated on: 2019-02-12 19:49:51 For Source Database: ORCLDB Source Database Version: 184.108.40.206.0 For Upgrade to Version: 220.127.116.11.0 Preup Preupgrade Action Issue Is Number Preupgrade Check Name Remedied Further DBA Action ------ --------------------- ---------- ------------------- 8. old_time_zones_exist YES None. 9. post_dictionary YES None. 10. post_fixed_objects NO Informational only. Further action is optional. 11. upg_by_std_upgrd NO Informational only. Further action is optional. The fixup scripts have been run and resovled what they can. However, there are still issues originally identified by the preupgrade that have not been remedied and are still present in the database. Depending on the severity of the specific issue, and the nature of the issue itself, that could mean that your database upgrade is not fully complete. To resolve the outstanding issues, start by reviewing the postupgrade_fixups.sql and searching it for the name of the failed CHECK NAME or Preupgrade Action Number listed above. There you will find the original corresponding diagnostic message from the preupgrade which explains in more detail what still needs to be done. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Session altered.
Now the database upgrade is complete and the database is ready for normal use.
SQL> select VERSION,name,open_mode from v$instance,v$database; VERSION NAME OPEN_MODE ------------ -------- ----------- 18.104.22.168.0 ORCLDB READ WRITE
SQL> SELECT * FROM v$timezone_file; FILENAME VERSION CON_ID -------------------- ---------- ---------- timezlrg_31.dat 31 0 SQL> select TZ_VERSION from registry$database; TZ_VERSION ---------- 31
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